All You Need To Know About Your Python’s Cage

By Jessica Harrison

When you decided to own a pet python, every detail about your pet is invaluable in making sure your pet is healthy and comfortable. Python owners, like owners of other pets, are usually keen to provide everything their pet needs.

To keep both the owner and the pet happy, in this article, I focus on the habitat of pythons and what needs to be done when they are reared as pets in an artificial environment. Many pythons suffer silently if they don’t get a warm, cozy place to live in that approximates their natural habitat in a few important ways.

So how can you rear python in a friendly setting? What type of habitat should you provide? How do you get your pet to enjoy your company?

Your Python’s Cage Size:

Python husbandry begins with getting a proper cage: One that is the right size, has proper lighting and ventilation, facilitates humidity and temperature control and is absolutely secure.

Choosing the right size is critical. Too small, and the animal will feel cramped. Too big, and the animal can feel stressed.

How to tell?

There are basically two types of pythons … those that live on land, and those that live on the branches of trees.

If your python is predominantly terrestrial, the rule of thumb for its cage size is that the perimeter (distance measured all the way around the cage) should be at least TWICE the length of the snake, and the ratio of the length to width should be 3 to 2.

For example, a 5 foot (1.5 meter) python would require at least a 10 foot perimeter cage … applying the 3: 2 ratio, that would mean a minimum cage size of 3′ x 2′.

A 10 foot python would require a 20 foot perimeter … 6′ x 4′ cage would be the minimum.

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Complexity of the Cage:

Most Pythons do very well in a simple cage. All require a water bowl and some sort of hiding place. And the water bowl must be disinfected regularly, since the python may have unwittingly used it as a bathroom.

Material the Cage is Made From:

Cages are made of different materials like acrylic, plywood, melamine and compressed shelving board. Each has its advantages and disadvantages.

Acrylic .. strong, transparent, and light weight. Pliable and easy to clean. The only disadvantage is its higher cost 🙁

Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) and High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) also make excellent cage materials, … but can also be very expensive.

Plywood can also be expensive, but you can select a 2nd grade material to reduce your costs.

Melamine is generally the material of choice for python owners. They are good looking, & less expensive, …but HEAVY! (So it’s kind of hard to move … a trade-off most people are willing to live with given the lower fees).


Pythons need a substrate. Newspaper is the easiest and most cost effective solution. (There are other options).

The Door:

What about the door?

You can have a transparent thick glass sliding door or opaque glassed solid door. Your choice 🙂

Keep two cages:

Ideally you would have 2 cages so that when one is cleaned, the python could be in the other one. Also ensure that your cage has a good interior coating.

Ventilation is very important:

Arrange to have near perfect ventilation for your pet cage. Good ventilation gives fresh air and lighting inside the cage, and is a strong component in keeping your python healthy and happy.

Rubber coated wire mesh is generally the most commonly chosen material. It’s important to get the rubber coated variety … the non-coated mesh will hurt your python’s nose when it tries to test the boundaries of the cage 🙁

Wooden and plastic pegboards also provide good ventilating materials.


One of the primary causes of python respiratory problems is improper cage temperature. So not only will you need heating arrangements in your cage, but you’ll also need to be able to easily monitor it from outside.

The right choice of a temperature system will help your python to stay healthy. There are several commercially available options, from low cost to high cost.

Heat panels are ideal for larger snakes. They cost more, but last longer. (Make sure to monitor the temperature closely when you use them … they are very effective).

Heat tapes are good also, but you have to be very careful to insulate the wiring, or you can electrocute your snake 🙁

Heat emitters (light bulbs that emit no light!) are good for pythons that are only active during the day …but are used less frequently.

Heat lamps are great for arboreal pythons. When you provide them at the top of the cage it helps them relax while coiled around a branch.

Heat rocks are not really recommended because of reports of thermal burns to pythons, and sometimes electrical shocks.


There is still a debate about lighting the python cages. It is argued that pythons do not require any artificial lighting as most of them shy away from it.

If you’re going to use lighting, though, I recommend low watt fluorescent lights for the cage. But please remember to shield ANY lighting you use … serious injury to your pet can result otherwise.

Since your pet Python will be spending almost all the time in its cage, it’s a very important to know more about ‘Python Housing” as this will help you get started.

About the Author: Jessica Harrison is the author of the best selling eBook “Python Secrets” published by Geostar Publishing & Services LLC.


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Kenya government fires health worker strikers over failure to ‘report back to work’

Kenya government fires health worker strikers over failure to ‘report back to work’

Saturday, March 10, 2012

The Kenyan government has dismissed 25,000 striking health workers, mostly nurses, citing failure to heed government orders to recommence work and concern for the welfare of hospital patients. Speaking on behalf of the government, Alfred Mutua stated the workers were dismissed “illegally striking” and “[defying] the directive … to report back to work”, which he called “unethical”. The government asks that “[a]ll qualified health professionals, who are unemployed and/or retired have been advised to report to their nearest health facility for interviews and deployment”, Mutua stated.

The workers, who had been on strike for four days, were wishing to have improvements made to their wages, working conditions, and allowances. The strikes have caused a significant number of Kenyan hospitals to cease operations. According to Kenya Health Professionals Society spokesperson Alex Orina, the average monthly wage plus allowances for health workers in Kenya is KSh25,000 (£193, US$302 or €230) approximately. With an increasing number of reports of patients neglected in hospitals emerging, two trade unions met with the Kenyan government yesterday and negotitated a return to work, although a significant proportion of demonstrators defied the agreement, The Guardian reported.

Orina told Reuters the dismissals were “cat-and-mouse games, you cannot sack an entire workforce. It is a ploy to get us to rush back to work, but our strike continues until our demands are met”. Frederick Omiah, a member of the same society, believed the government’s actions would “make an already delicate and volatile situation worse”, expressing concern that demonstrations may continue in the capital Nairobi, amongst other locations. Kenya Medical Practitioners, Pharmacists and Dentists Union chairperson Dr. Victor Ng’ani described government actions as “reckless”.

Mutua said the health workers were “no longer employees of the government” and had been eliminated from the payroll. While Ng’ani told the BBC of difficulties with finding other workers as skilled and experienced, Mutua reportedly stated that this would not be an issue. “We have over 100,000 to 200,000 health professionals looking for work today,” Mutua commented. “There will be a lag of a day or two … but it is better than letting people die on the floor, at the gate, or suffer in pain”.

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Gulan’s Space Projections}

Gulan’s Space Projections



Space Projections, the most recent album by Gulan, has gone beyond the hope of all diehard Gulan fans. This in itself is a big success, for there are several who believe Cassiopeia, his earlier album, as the ultimate ambient music phenomenon. The earlier albums Antigravitation and Sphere, in addition to Cassiopeia sure a large number of music fans about his exclusive capability to generate space music by coming together various musical genres. If anyone disbelief his capability till date, Space Projections would erase such uncertainties. This 55-minute album comprising of nine tracks is his most excellent work so far.

While Gulan’s music is an uncommon and tale combination of music, the traits of the musician are also exceptional. The music industry and his fans love hype and trivia. In Gulan’s case, not much is recognized about him apart from essential information about his nationality and age. For those who are interested, he was born in Latvia in 1974. His real name is Andrei Gulaikin. Gulaikin was shortened to Gulan as the raw music ability of the man begins to convey itself in different types of space music. Gulan is not a showman or a man who look for exposure. He is involved in try out with and make new types of music in his music studio in Latvia called Gulan Music Studios.

Space Projections: The New Album

Many musical proficients have marked threads of influence of Klause Schulze, Michael Stearns, and Robert Rich in Gulan’s music. In general, his music is a spectacular and tale mixture of space music. This face of his music is very much evident in Space Projections, as well. In a sense, Space Projections begin where Cassiopeia and Sphere finish

As is the norm with space music albums, this album is packaged with a creatively designed cover that can simply locate its way to an art gallery. The album begins with three versions of the title track: Space Projections 1, Space Projections 2, and Space Projections 3. The first one is the most excellent. The track is splendid with enjoyable sounds and new tunes and shows you why Gulan is regarded as a master of blending electronic sounds. Maybe this mastery can be recognized to his influential years which he spent in fiddling, playing, and experimenting with electronic synthesizers.

The subsequently three tracks, Basic Algorithm, Floating in Space, and The Black Hole, are also refreshingly fresh. These tracks raise you to a peaceful feel of meditation and a cosmic condition of brain. You can present yourself to the magnetic power of music and let the vibrant textures of space music capture.

The outstanding three tracks, Heavenly Lights, Airway 7, and Good Bye, remind you of Gulan’s earlier tracks, particularly those rhythmic numbers in Cassiopeia. The final one, suitably called Good Bye, is a remix. These tracks are masterly creations of ambient music of such high-class that it would be tough for a space music admirer to not pay attention to them repeatedly.

Space Projections, the most recent album by Gulan, has gone beyond the hope of all diehard Gulan fans. This in itself is a big success, for there are several who believe Cassiopeia, his earlier album, as the ultimate ambient music phenomenon. The earlier albums Antigravitation and Sphere, in addition to Cassiopeia sure a large number of music fans about his exclusive capability to generate space music by coming together various musical genres. If anyone disbelief his capability till date, Space Projections would erase such uncertainties. This 55-minute album comprising of nine tracks is his most excellent work so far.

While Gulan’s music is an uncommon and tale combination of music, the traits of the musician are also exceptional. The music industry and his fans love hype and trivia. In Gulan’s case, not much is recognized about him apart from essential information about his nationality and age. For those who are interested, he was born in Latvia in 1974. His real name is Andrei Gulaikin. Gulaikin was shortened to Gulan as the raw music ability of the man begins to convey itself in different types of space music. Gulan is not a showman or a man who look for exposure. He is involved in try out with and make new types of music in his music studio in Latvia called Gulan Music Studios.

Space Projections: The New Album

Many musical proficients have marked threads of influence of Klause Schulze, Michael Stearns, and Robert Rich in Gulan’s music. In general, his music is a spectacular and tale mixture of space music. This face of his music is very much evident in Space Projections, as well. In a sense, Space Projections begin where Cassiopeia and Sphere finish

As is the norm with space music albums, this album is packaged with a creatively designed cover that can simply locate its way to an art gallery. The album begins with three versions of the title track: Space Projections 1, Space Projections 2, and Space Projections 3. The first one is the most excellent. The track is splendid with enjoyable sounds and new tunes and shows you why Gulan is regarded as a master of blending electronic sounds. Maybe this mastery can be recognized to his influential years which he spent in fiddling, playing, and experimenting with electronic synthesizers.

The subsequently three tracks, Basic Algorithm, Floating in Space, and The Black Hole, are also refreshingly fresh. These tracks raise you to a peaceful feel of meditation and a cosmic condition of brain. You can present yourself to the magnetic power of music and let the vibrant textures of space music capture.

The outstanding three tracks, Heavenly Lights, Airway 7, and Good Bye, remind you of Gulan’s earlier tracks, particularly those rhythmic numbers in Cassiopeia. The final one, suitably called Good Bye, is a remix. These tracks are masterly creations of ambient music of such high-class that it would be tough for a space music admirer to not pay attention to them repeatedly.

Gulan – Space Projections

; a new album is making the fans crazy. You can also listen and download

space music


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Wikinews Shorts: August 9, 2009

Wikinews Shorts: August 9, 2009
November 25th, 2021 | Uncategorized |

A compilation of brief news reports for Sunday, August 9, 2009.


Indonesia is to carry out DNA tests on the body of a man killed in the Temanggung district of Central Java. The body is believed to be that of Noordin Mohammed Top. Born in Malaysia, Top is believed to have been behind a string of terrorist attacks in Indonesia since 2002, including the 2002 Bali bombings and the bombing of the Marriott and Ritz-Carlton hotels this July.

After a 16-hour siege, Indonesia’s elite Detachment 88 stormed a building in Beji village that police intelligence officers believe was occupied by Top and his group.

In an unrelated police raid two would-be suicide bombers were also killed; the target of their truck bomb was believed to be a residence owned by Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.


  • Suherdjoko & Dicky Christanto. “Terror suspects in shoot-out” — The Jakarta Post, August 8, 2009
  • Xiong Tong. “Indonesian police to conduct DNA test on terrorist leader Top” — Xinhua News Agency, August 8, 2009
  • Blomfield, Adrian. “Police foil plot to kill Indonesian president after raid on top terror suspect” — The Telegraph, August 8, 2009

Following a mass trial on August 1, at which critics of the Ahmadinejad regime were tried for sedition, Iran has on Saturday initiated a second mass trial of those it accuses of attempting to destabilise the Iranian state. Amongst the dozen accused are staff members of the British and French embassies and a French national. Both France and Britain have protested, with British officials calling the situation “completely unacceptable” and the French saying that the Iranian allegations were “absolutely baseless”.

In what have been described as show trials, opposition leaders have confessed to crimes against the state.

Wikipedia has more about this subject:


  • “Iran holds 2nd protest-related court session” — CBC News, August 8, 2009
  • “Embassy workers on trial in Iran” — BBC Online, August 8, 2009
  • “French national on trial in Iran over post-election unrest” — Deutsche Welle, August 8, 2009

Great train robber Ronnie Biggs has been released from prison custody on compassionate grounds by British Secretary of State for Justice Jack Straw. Biggs, aged 80, is suffering from pneumonia and is said to have just days to live.

His release comes on the day of his birthday and the 46th anniversary of the crime that made him infamous.


  • “Freed Train Robber Ronnie Biggs Turns 80” — Sky News, August 8, 2009
  • Burns, John F. “Britain’s Great Train Robber Freed” — The New York Times, August 8, 2009

Samantha Orobator, a British 20-year-old from Peckham, London has been returned to the United Kingdom to serve out the remainder of a life sentence for drug smuggling. Convicted in Laos of attempting to smuggle 680g of heroin, Orobator initially faced execution by firing squad, which she escaped only when she became pregnant.

The circumstances of her trial and the circumstances of how she came to be pregnant has led to human rights organisation Reprieve to call for the quashing of her conviction. However the British government has indicated that it will honour its prisoner repatriation agreement with Laos.


  • Vorakhoun, Phonekeo. “Pregnant British prisoner returns home from Laos” — AsiaOne, August 8, 2009
  • “Pregnant prisoner returns to UK” — BBC News Online, August 7, 2009
  • Addley, Esther. “Ministers condemned for imprisoning pregnant woman after ‘sham trial’ in Laos” — The Guardian, August 7, 2009

In a move championed by its chief executive officer, Rupert Murdoch, News Corporation announced it will charge for online content across all its titles by the end of the year. News Corporation owns the publications The Times and The Wall Street Journal amongst other media interests.

The move comes after a collapse in advertising revenues and US$3.4 billion of losses in the fiscal year just ended. Murdoch explained “…quality journalism is not cheap” and said his plan will “save journalism”. He says he is confident that competitors will follow his lead.


  • “News Corp tests charge-for-content policy at Sunday Times: report” — Agence France-Presse, August 7, 2009
  • Golson, Jordan. “News Corp. Mogul Cries ‘Charge!’ for Online News” — Business Week, August 6, 2009

Buoyed by better then expected unemployment figures for July, President Barack Obama claimed on Friday that the United States economy is “pointed in the right’ direction and that “we’ve rescued our economy from catastrophe”.

His speech comes in the wake of Bureau of Labor Statistics figures indicating that 200,000 fewer jobs were lost in July then in June.


  • Brandon, Katherine. “The President On July Unemployment Figures” — Executive Office of the President of the United States, August 7, 2009
  • Collinson, Stephen. “Obama says US economy saved from ‘catastrophe'” — Agence France-Presse, August 7, 2009

Five of Hong Kong’s six Disciplined Services continue to press the territory’s government for pay parity with the Hong Kong Police Force. Although industrial action is for the time being unlikely unions representing officers from correctional services, customs and excise, fire services, immigration and government flying services will hold a mass meeting later this month to put pressure on the government.

Similar rank and grade structures are used through out the six services, however despite the claim that customs and police officers having similar duties and workloads, a police officer will receive up to HK$7,900 more than a custom officer of the same rank.


  • Wong, Adele. “Summer of strikes looks less likely” — The Standard, August 7, 2009
  • Lee, Diana. “Customs officers seek pay parity with police” — The Standard, August 5, 2009
  • “Customs officers demand pay parity” — RTHK, August 4, 2009

Social networking site Twitter is the unlikely victim of the ongoing hostility between Russia and Georgia. However, on the anniversary of the South Ossetian war, Russian hackers launched a mass denial-of-service attack aimed at silencing Cyxymu, a Georgian economics professor critical of Russia. In addition to Twitter other sites at which Cyxymu posted were also attacked, however being a smaller operation the attacks caused a complete outage of Twitter while the other sites were merely slowed.


  • Bradley, Tony. “Twitter Continues to Battle DDoS Attack” — PC World, August 08, 2009
  • “Pro-Georgian Blogger Target of Mass Cyber Attacks” — Voice of America, August 08, 2009

Pakistani intelligence service sources state that Hakimullah Mehsud leader of Fedayeen al-Islam has been killed in a fight for the leadership of Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) an al-Qaeda ally.

The statement comes a day after public speculation of the death of TTP leader Baitullah Mehsud in a drone attack on the 5th of August. Baitullah and Hakimullah are cousins with Hakimullah serving as a deputy to Baitullah. The TTP is a coalition of disparate groups and without the charisma and leadership of Baitullah, appears to have fallen victim to internal feuding. According to sources Hakimullah Mehsud met with rival Taliban leader Waliur Rehman to determine the succession, word at the shura became heated and led to a gunfight that resulted in the death of Hakimullah and the serious wounding of Rehman.

Hakimullah had earlier issued statements denying Baitullah’s death.


  • “TTP leader dead in succession fight?” — Dawn (newspaper), August 9, 2009
  • Burke, Jason. “Taliban commander denies the death of Baitullah Mehsud” — The Guardian, August 9, 2009
  • “Report: Taliban torn by feud after death” — UPI, August 8, 2009

Hurricane Felicia has weakened to a tropical storm, but residents of Hawaii are continuing to monitor the storm’s progress as it approaches the islands.

Tropical storm watches were posted for portions of the state, and some beaches have been closed in anticipation of high surf. Meanwhile, emergency supplies were selling rapidly at local stores: “Things are just flying out”, said Vicki Lebowitz, manager of The City Mill in Oahu.

The storm, once a Category 4 major hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, is expected to further weaken before making landfall on Hawaii.

  • “Felicia weakens to tropical storm near Hawaii” — Yahoo! News, August 9, 2009
  • Associated Press. “Hawaii to close beaches as Hurricane Felicia nears” — The Los Angeles Times, August 9, 2009

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Edmund White on writing, incest, life and Larry Kramer

Edmund White on writing, incest, life and Larry Kramer
November 24th, 2021 | Uncategorized |

Thursday, November 8, 2007

What you are about to read is an American life as lived by renowned author Edmund White. His life has been a crossroads, the fulcrum of high-brow Classicism and low-brow Brett Easton Ellisism. It is not for the faint. He has been the toast of the literary elite in New York, London and Paris, befriending artistic luminaries such as Salman Rushdie and Sir Ian McKellen while writing about a family where he was jealous his sister was having sex with his father as he fought off his mother’s amorous pursuit.

The fact is, Edmund White exists. His life exists. To the casual reader, they may find it disquieting that someone like his father existed in 1950’s America and that White’s work is the progeny of his intimate effort to understand his own experience.

Wikinews reporter David Shankbone understood that an interview with Edmund White, who is professor of creative writing at Princeton University, who wrote the seminal biography of Jean Genet, and who no longer can keep track of how many sex partners he has encountered, meant nothing would be off limits. Nothing was. Late in the interview they were joined by his partner Michael Caroll, who discussed White’s enduring feud with influential writer and activist Larry Kramer.

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Tantric Massage 6 Guidelines On Discovering The Very Best Massage Establishment}

November 24th, 2021 | Salt Therapy Solutions |

Submitted by: Dennie Miranda

If you want to have a Tantric Therapeutic massage, London is definitely the very best place to go in the United kingdom. There is a very good variety of establishments and independent therapists to pick from. In reality, it is a bit like becoming a child and getting into a sweet store. Which a single do you choose? It can be all effectively and good if you are skilled, and you know what you’re searching for, but what about the personal that is looking for their 1st sensual Therapeutic massage expertise, who guides them?This report is to response that last query, and sets out 5 ideas/ pointers that you ought to be informed of and look for when creating your choice of which establishment or therapist you need to choose.Pointer 1 – Not all Tantric Massages in London are the sameYou want to be aware that there are many kinds of establishments providing to supply a Tantric Massage. Nonetheless, many of these establishments or therapists are both not qualified, or have extremely small encounter. Some even use the umbrella of the Tantric Massage as a string to their sexual providing as an escort, or sexual massage parlour.If you are looking for an authentic Tantric Therapeutic massage in London, you want to be conscious of this and be on your guard. There are a lot of that will take your money at a premium price, and offer an unauthentic massage that is undoubtedly not TantricPointer two – Concentrate on Looking in the West End of LondonA good suggestion is to concentrate on seeking around the West End of London (or Zones 1 & two if you want to use the underground region group). This is exactly where the bulk of firms are based mostly. That is not to say that you would not be ready to find a great company exterior of Zone one & two, but the option is a lot better in this location, so it is very best to get started contacting businesses in this region.Pointer 3 – Does the Establishment or Therapist have a Web Internet siteA good tip to assist filter the good from the poor is to make certain that the establishment or therapist has a internet website. Now just because they do, isn’t going to indicate that they are excellent, and if they don’t it does not indicate that the are bad. Nonetheless, there are a wonderful deal of really bad good quality so named therapists advertising sensual therapeutic massage, erotic massage or Tantric Therapeutic massage in London labeled advertisements, or other free labeled directories. If you are new to all this, then it is best to seem at those that offer you the support that have a web web site, as they are most likely to offer a reputable support. A very good expression to enter in to the search engines is?Tantric Therapeutic massage LondonPointer four – InterviewThe up coming issue you ought to when you have found an establishment or therapist that supplies this sensual Massage services, is to request some questions – job interview them. You are about to contract them to have out a services for you, and an skilled totally qualified masseur/ masseuse arrives at a premium price, so you will undoubtedly want to know that you are getting what you are spending for and not some bad quality imitation.These are the queries you really should consult: -If you want to go to an establishment and have your Massage there, then that is named an in contact. If you want the therapist to come to your house or hotel area, that is referred to as an out call. So you need to consult:(a)??? Do you supply an “in phone” Tantric Therapeutic massage support? (b)??? Do you give an “out get in touch with” Tantric Therapeutic massage service?If you want an out get in touch with, consult if they supply a Tantric Therapeutic massage in London, and? name the location of London exactly where you will be remaining or are dwellingIf you are a woman, you may possibly want to have a masseur (male therapist), or you could want to have a masseuse (feminine therapist) have out your sensual Therapeutic massage, so you will have to request:(a)??? Do you have masseurs that supply a Tantric therapeutic massage for females (b)??? Do your? masseuses provide a Tantric massage for femalesNot all establishments have masseurs, so if you especially desired a man to therapeutic massage you, then be sure to consult thisRequest how many therapists they have. An establishment with four or much more displays that could effectively be a hectic establishment, and that is a very good signalInquire if ALL the therapists are totally skilled, or if there are any trainees. You want to make certain that you ebook a completely skilled therapistLet the particular person on the other finish of the cellphone know what you are hunting for from the therapist:(a)??? A variety light caring therapist (b)???? A quite masseuse (c)??? A excellent hunting masseur (d)??? A spectacular figureBy this time, you might be presented the title of the therapist that best fits you. Inquire then how a lot of months/ decades Tantric Therapeutic massage encounter that therapist has considering that becoming fully skilled. You really want to have a person with at minimum 6 months knowledge. By then, they will have produced their individual fluent style which is critical.Consult what the range of fees will be E-book your appointment and verify the time and datePointer five – Price of the MassageSome thing to bear in head is the expense. Not just from your wallet point of watch, but from the age old adage “you get what you shell out for”. With Tantric Massage, forget the expressioncheep. It just just isn’t fitting. An experience, completely qualified therapist is a professional, and this erotic Massage is a expert market, so a great session will not be cheep. There are many several so named “therapists” that provide this service as component of an escort support (to add a string to their bow), but are not providing an genuine Tantric Massage, and their charges may be really reduced in contrast to other correct establishments. It is not encouraged that you make an appointment with these people just simply because you are acquiring a “cheep offer”. In reality, you will almost certainly not be obtaining a cheep offer, but an high-priced 2nd rate therapeutic massage. The value need to be properly above one hundred fifty, nearly anything less ought to set off alarm bells, and in actuality, you need to be spending above 200 for your Tantric Massage in London.Pointer 6 – Hygiene, Courtesy & Etiquette? Though this is not a pointerin obtaining the right establishment, I needed to include this as an important consideration. When your therapist arrives, you are about to devote a extremely intimate time jointly. You ought to go to the energy to make your therapist feel specific, since they are heading to make you experience really unique.CleanlinessMake confident you have had a bath or shower, and that you scent actual great. Wash your genitals so they smell great alsoDress for the eventDespite the fact that you are not going out for a fancy diner date, you should make the work to appear desirable when your therapist meets you. Initial impressions go a long way, and it all provides to the situation. You will not have to gown formally, just go to the work to search good.PresentsIt is a extremely great gesture to have a tiny reward or presents for your therapist. A box of chocolates, or some thing like that – a token would be wonderful. Also, a glass of champagne or wine to have just prior to your session commences might be a wonderful touch.The point is, to make your therapist experience that you take into account and value them as a individual, and not just somebody carrying out a career for you.For a?Tantric Therapeutic massage London is an remarkable spot to arrive, and I am sure you will have the most remarkable sensual massage if you stick to these tips.

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Wikinews Shorts: July 9, 2007">
Wikinews Shorts: July 9, 2007

November 24th, 2021 | Uncategorized |

A compilation of brief news reports for Monday, July 9, 2007.

On July 9, 2007, Sony Computer Entertainment America announced the release of an 80GB hard drive version of its PlayStation 3 video game console, priced at US$599.

Sony also announced a price drop to US$499 for its current 60GB model. Jack Tretton, Sony Entertainment America chief executive, said, “Our initial expectation is that sales should double at a minimum.”


Nigerian gunmen have released three-year-old Margaret Hill, after holding her captive for four days. The toddler has since been reunited with her parents. She is reportedly in good health but covered with mosquito bites and also hungry, having not eaten recently.

The kidnappers had threatened to kill the toddler unless a ransom was paid or Mr. Hill came to take her place. The family claims no ransom was paid for her freedom. She was kidnapped from her car on July 5, on her way to school. Her driver was stabbed trying to protect Margaret.


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U.K. National Portrait Gallery threatens U.S. citizen with legal action over Wikimedia images">
U.K. National Portrait Gallery threatens U.S. citizen with legal action over Wikimedia images

November 24th, 2021 | Uncategorized |

Tuesday, July 14, 2009

This article mentions the Wikimedia Foundation, one of its projects, or people related to it. Wikinews is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation.

The English National Portrait Gallery (NPG) in London has threatened on Friday to sue a U.S. citizen, Derrick Coetzee. The legal letter followed claims that he had breached the Gallery’s copyright in several thousand photographs of works of art uploaded to the Wikimedia Commons, a free online media repository.

In a letter from their solicitors sent to Coetzee via electronic mail, the NPG asserted that it holds copyright in the photographs under U.K. law, and demanded that Coetzee provide various undertakings and remove all of the images from the site (referred to in the letter as “the Wikipedia website”).

Wikimedia Commons is a repository of free-to-use media, run by a community of volunteers from around the world, and is a sister project to Wikinews and the encyclopedia Wikipedia. Coetzee, who contributes to the Commons using the account “Dcoetzee”, had uploaded images that are free for public use under United States law, where he and the website are based. However copyright is claimed to exist in the country where the gallery is situated.

The complaint by the NPG is that under UK law, its copyright in the photographs of its portraits is being violated. While the gallery has complained to the Wikimedia Foundation for a number of years, this is the first direct threat of legal action made against an actual uploader of images. In addition to the allegation that Coetzee had violated the NPG’s copyright, they also allege that Coetzee had, by uploading thousands of images in bulk, infringed the NPG’s database right, breached a contract with the NPG; and circumvented a copyright protection mechanism on the NPG’s web site.

The copyright protection mechanism referred to is Zoomify, a product of Zoomify, Inc. of Santa Cruz, California. NPG’s solicitors stated in their letter that “Our client used the Zoomify technology to protect our client’s copyright in the high resolution images.”. Zoomify Inc. states in the Zoomify support documentation that its product is intended to make copying of images “more difficult” by breaking the image into smaller pieces and disabling the option within many web browsers to click and save images, but that they “provide Zoomify as a viewing solution and not an image security system”.

In particular, Zoomify’s website comments that while “many customers — famous museums for example” use Zoomify, in their experience a “general consensus” seems to exist that most museums are concerned with making the images in their galleries accessible to the public, rather than preventing the public from accessing them or making copies; they observe that a desire to prevent high resolution images being distributed would also imply prohibiting the sale of any posters or production of high quality printed material that could be scanned and placed online.

Other actions in the past have come directly from the NPG, rather than via solicitors. For example, several edits have been made directly to the English-language Wikipedia from the IP address, one of sixteen such IP addresses assigned to computers at the NPG by its ISP, Easynet.

In the period from August 2005 to July 2006 an individual within the NPG using that IP address acted to remove the use of several Wikimedia Commons pictures from articles in Wikipedia, including removing an image of the Chandos portrait, which the NPG has had in its possession since 1856, from Wikipedia’s biographical article on William Shakespeare.

Other actions included adding notices to the pages for images, and to the text of several articles using those images, such as the following edit to Wikipedia’s article on Catherine of Braganza and to its page for the Wikipedia Commons image of Branwell Brontë‘s portrait of his sisters:

“This image is copyright material and must not be reproduced in any way without permission of the copyright holder. Under current UK copyright law, there is copyright in skilfully executed photographs of ex-copyright works, such as this painting of Catherine de Braganza.
The original painting belongs to the National Portrait Gallery, London. For copies, and permission to reproduce the image, please contact the Gallery at or via our website at”

Other, later, edits, made on the day that NPG’s solicitors contacted Coetzee and drawn to the NPG’s attention by Wikinews, are currently the subject of an internal investigation within the NPG.

Coetzee published the contents of the letter on Saturday July 11, the letter itself being dated the previous day. It had been sent electronically to an email address associated with his Wikimedia Commons user account. The NPG’s solicitors had mailed the letter from an account in the name “Amisquitta”. This account was blocked shortly after by a user with access to the user blocking tool, citing a long standing Wikipedia policy that the making of legal threats and creation of a hostile environment is generally inconsistent with editing access and is an inappropriate means of resolving user disputes.

The policy, initially created on Commons’ sister website in June 2004, is also intended to protect all parties involved in a legal dispute, by ensuring that their legal communications go through proper channels, and not through a wiki that is open to editing by other members of the public. It was originally formulated primarily to address legal action for libel. In October 2004 it was noted that there was “no consensus” whether legal threats related to copyright infringement would be covered but by the end of 2006 the policy had reached a consensus that such threats (as opposed to polite complaints) were not compatible with editing access while a legal matter was unresolved. Commons’ own website states that “[accounts] used primarily to create a hostile environment for another user may be blocked”.

In a further response, Gregory Maxwell, a volunteer administrator on Wikimedia Commons, made a formal request to the editorial community that Coetzee’s access to administrator tools on Commons should be revoked due to the prevailing circumstances. Maxwell noted that Coetzee “[did] not have the technically ability to permanently delete images”, but stated that Coetzee’s potential legal situation created a conflict of interest.

Sixteen minutes after Maxwell’s request, Coetzee’s “administrator” privileges were removed by a user in response to the request. Coetzee retains “administrator” privileges on the English-language Wikipedia, since none of the images exist on Wikipedia’s own website and therefore no conflict of interest exists on that site.

Legally, the central issue upon which the case depends is that copyright laws vary between countries. Under United States case law, where both the website and Coetzee are located, a photograph of a non-copyrighted two-dimensional picture (such as a very old portrait) is not capable of being copyrighted, and it may be freely distributed and used by anyone. Under UK law that point has not yet been decided, and the Gallery’s solicitors state that such photographs could potentially be subject to copyright in that country.

One major legal point upon which a case would hinge, should the NPG proceed to court, is a question of originality. The U.K.’s Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 defines in ¶ 1(a) that copyright is a right that subsists in “original literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works” (emphasis added). The legal concept of originality here involves the simple origination of a work from an author, and does not include the notions of novelty or innovation that is often associated with the non-legal meaning of the word.

Whether an exact photographic reproduction of a work is an original work will be a point at issue. The NPG asserts that an exact photographic reproduction of a copyrighted work in another medium constitutes an original work, and this would be the basis for its action against Coetzee. This view has some support in U.K. case law. The decision of Walter v Lane held that exact transcriptions of speeches by journalists, in shorthand on reporter’s notepads, were original works, and thus copyrightable in themselves. The opinion by Hugh Laddie, Justice Laddie, in his book The Modern Law of Copyright, points out that photographs lie on a continuum, and that photographs can be simple copies, derivative works, or original works:

“[…] it is submitted that a person who makes a photograph merely by placing a drawing or painting on the glass of a photocopying machine and pressing the button gets no copyright at all; but he might get a copyright if he employed skill and labour in assembling the thing to be photocopied, as where he made a montage.”

Various aspects of this continuum have already been explored in the courts. Justice Neuberger, in the decision at v Rodney Fitch & Co. held that a photograph of a three-dimensional object would be copyrightable if some exercise of judgement of the photographer in matters of angle, lighting, film speed, and focus were involved. That exercise would create an original work. Justice Oliver similarly held, in Interlego v Tyco Industries, that “[i]t takes great skill, judgement and labour to produce a good copy by painting or to produce an enlarged photograph from a positive print, but no-one would reasonably contend that the copy, painting, or enlargement was an ‘original’ artistic work in which the copier is entitled to claim copyright. Skill, labour or judgement merely in the process of copying cannot confer originality.”.

In 2000 the Museums Copyright Group, a copyright lobbying group, commissioned a report and legal opinion on the implications of the Bridgeman case for the UK, which stated:

“Revenue raised from reproduction fees and licensing is vital to museums to support their primary educational and curatorial objectives. Museums also rely on copyright in photographs of works of art to protect their collections from inaccurate reproduction and captioning… as a matter of principle, a photograph of an artistic work can qualify for copyright protection in English law”. The report concluded by advocating that “museums must continue to lobby” to protect their interests, to prevent inferior quality images of their collections being distributed, and “not least to protect a vital source of income”.

Several people and organizations in the U.K. have been awaiting a test case that directly addresses the issue of copyrightability of exact photographic reproductions of works in other media. The commonly cited legal case Bridgeman Art Library v. Corel Corp. found that there is no originality where the aim and the result is a faithful and exact reproduction of the original work. The case was heard twice in New York, once applying UK law and once applying US law. It cited the prior UK case of Interlego v Tyco Industries (1988) in which Lord Oliver stated that “Skill, labour or judgement merely in the process of copying cannot confer originality.”

“What is important about a drawing is what is visually significant and the re-drawing of an existing drawing […] does not make it an original artistic work, however much labour and skill may have gone into the process of reproduction […]”

The Interlego judgement had itself drawn upon another UK case two years earlier, Coca-Cola Go’s Applications, in which the House of Lords drew attention to the “undesirability” of plaintiffs seeking to expand intellectual property law beyond the purpose of its creation in order to create an “undeserving monopoly”. It commented on this, that “To accord an independent artistic copyright to every such reproduction would be to enable the period of artistic copyright in what is, essentially, the same work to be extended indefinitely… ”

The Bridgeman case concluded that whether under UK or US law, such reproductions of copyright-expired material were not capable of being copyrighted.

The unsuccessful plaintiff, Bridgeman Art Library, stated in 2006 in written evidence to the House of Commons Committee on Culture, Media and Sport that it was “looking for a similar test case in the U.K. or Europe to fight which would strengthen our position”.

The National Portrait Gallery is a non-departmental public body based in London England and sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. Founded in 1856, it houses a collection of portraits of historically important and famous British people. The gallery contains more than 11,000 portraits and 7,000 light-sensitive works in its Primary Collection, 320,000 in the Reference Collection, over 200,000 pictures and negatives in the Photographs Collection and a library of around 35,000 books and manuscripts. (More on the National Portrait Gallery here)

The gallery’s solicitors are Farrer & Co LLP, of London. Farrer’s clients have notably included the British Royal Family, in a case related to extracts from letters sent by Diana, Princess of Wales which were published in a book by ex-butler Paul Burrell. (In that case, the claim was deemed unlikely to succeed, as the extracts were not likely to be in breach of copyright law.)

Farrer & Co have close ties with industry interest groups related to copyright law. Peter Wienand, Head of Intellectual Property at Farrer & Co., is a member of the Executive body of the Museums Copyright Group, which is chaired by Tom Morgan, Head of Rights and Reproductions at the National Portrait Gallery. The Museums Copyright Group acts as a lobbying organization for “the interests and activities of museums and galleries in the area of [intellectual property rights]”, which reacted strongly against the Bridgeman Art Library v. Corel Corp. case.

Wikimedia Commons is a repository of images, media, and other material free for use by anyone in the world. It is operated by a community of 21,000 active volunteers, with specialist rights such as deletion and blocking restricted to around 270 experienced users in the community (known as “administrators”) who are trusted by the community to use them to enact the wishes and policies of the community. Commons is hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation, a charitable body whose mission is to make available free knowledge and historic and other material which is legally distributable under US law. (More on Commons here)

The legal threat also sparked discussions of moral issues and issues of public policy in several Internet discussion fora, including Slashdot, over the weekend. One major public policy issue relates to how the public domain should be preserved.

Some of the public policy debate over the weekend has echoed earlier opinions presented by Kenneth Hamma, the executive director for Digital Policy at the J. Paul Getty Trust. Writing in D-Lib Magazine in November 2005, Hamma observed:

“Art museums and many other collecting institutions in this country hold a trove of public-domain works of art. These are works whose age precludes continued protection under copyright law. The works are the result of and evidence for human creativity over thousands of years, an activity museums celebrate by their very existence. For reasons that seem too frequently unexamined, many museums erect barriers that contribute to keeping quality images of public domain works out of the hands of the general public, of educators, and of the general milieu of creativity. In restricting access, art museums effectively take a stand against the creativity they otherwise celebrate. This conflict arises as a result of the widely accepted practice of asserting rights in the images that the museums make of the public domain works of art in their collections.”

He also stated:

“This resistance to free and unfettered access may well result from a seemingly well-grounded concern: many museums assume that an important part of their core business is the acquisition and management of rights in art works to maximum return on investment. That might be true in the case of the recording industry, but it should not be true for nonprofit institutions holding public domain art works; it is not even their secondary business. Indeed, restricting access seems all the more inappropriate when measured against a museum’s mission — a responsibility to provide public access. Their charitable, financial, and tax-exempt status demands such. The assertion of rights in public domain works of art — images that at their best closely replicate the values of the original work — differs in almost every way from the rights managed by the recording industry. Because museums and other similar collecting institutions are part of the private nonprofit sector, the obligation to treat assets as held in public trust should replace the for-profit goal. To do otherwise, undermines the very nature of what such institutions were created to do.”

Hamma observed in 2005 that “[w]hile examples of museums chasing down digital image miscreants are rare to non-existent, the expectation that museums might do so has had a stultifying effect on the development of digital image libraries for teaching and research.”

The NPG, which has been taking action with respect to these images since at least 2005, is a public body. It was established by Act of Parliament, the current Act being the Museums and Galleries Act 1992. In that Act, the NPG Board of Trustees is charged with maintaining “a collection of portraits of the most eminent persons in British history, of other works of art relevant to portraiture and of documents relating to those portraits and other works of art”. It also has the tasks of “secur[ing] that the portraits are exhibited to the public” and “generally promot[ing] the public’s enjoyment and understanding of portraiture of British persons and British history through portraiture both by means of the Board’s collection and by such other means as they consider appropriate”.

Several commentators have questioned how the NPG’s statutory goals align with its threat of legal action. Mike Masnick, founder of Techdirt, asked “The people who run the Gallery should be ashamed of themselves. They ought to go back and read their own mission statement[. …] How, exactly, does suing someone for getting those portraits more attention achieve that goal?” (external link Masnick’s). L. Sutherland of Bigmouthmedia asked “As the paintings of the NPG technically belong to the nation, does that mean that they should also belong to anyone that has access to a computer?”

Other public policy debates that have been sparked have included the applicability of U.K. courts, and U.K. law, to the actions of a U.S. citizen, residing in the U.S., uploading files to servers hosted in the U.S.. Two major schools of thought have emerged. Both see the issue as encroachment of one legal system upon another. But they differ as to which system is encroaching. One view is that the free culture movement is attempting to impose the values and laws of the U.S. legal system, including its case law such as Bridgeman Art Library v. Corel Corp., upon the rest of the world. Another view is that a U.K. institution is attempting to control, through legal action, the actions of a U.S. citizen on U.S. soil.

David Gerard, former Press Officer for Wikimedia UK, the U.K. chapter of the Wikimedia Foundation, which has been involved with the “Wikipedia Loves Art” contest to create free content photographs of exhibits at the Victoria and Albert Museum, stated on Slashdot that “The NPG actually acknowledges in their letter that the poster’s actions were entirely legal in America, and that they’re making a threat just because they think they can. The Wikimedia community and the WMF are absolutely on the side of these public domain images remaining in the public domain. The NPG will be getting radioactive publicity from this. Imagine the NPG being known to American tourists as somewhere that sues Americans just because it thinks it can.”

Benjamin Crowell, a physics teacher at Fullerton College in California, stated that he had received a letter from the Copyright Officer at the NPG in 2004, with respect to the picture of the portrait of Isaac Newton used in his physics textbooks, that he publishes in the U.S. under a free content copyright licence, to which he had replied with a pointer to Bridgeman Art Library v. Corel Corp..

The Wikimedia Foundation takes a similar stance. Erik Möller, the Deputy Director of the US-based Wikimedia Foundation wrote in 2008 that “we’ve consistently held that faithful reproductions of two-dimensional public domain works which are nothing more than reproductions should be considered public domain for licensing purposes”.

Contacted over the weekend, the NPG issued a statement to Wikinews:

“The National Portrait Gallery is very strongly committed to giving access to its Collection. In the past five years the Gallery has spent around £1 million digitising its Collection to make it widely available for study and enjoyment. We have so far made available on our website more than 60,000 digital images, which have attracted millions of users, and we believe this extensive programme is of great public benefit.
“The Gallery supports Wikipedia in its aim of making knowledge widely available and we would be happy for the site to use our low-resolution images, sufficient for most forms of public access, subject to safeguards. However, in March 2009 over 3000 high-resolution files were appropriated from the National Portrait Gallery website and published on Wikipedia without permission.
“The Gallery is very concerned that potential loss of licensing income from the high-resolution files threatens its ability to reinvest in its digitisation programme and so make further images available. It is one of the Gallery’s primary purposes to make as much of the Collection available as possible for the public to view.
“Digitisation involves huge costs including research, cataloguing, conservation and highly-skilled photography. Images then need to be made available on the Gallery website as part of a structured and authoritative database. To date, Wikipedia has not responded to our requests to discuss the issue and so the National Portrait Gallery has been obliged to issue a lawyer’s letter. The Gallery remains willing to enter into a dialogue with Wikipedia.

In fact, Matthew Bailey, the Gallery’s (then) Assistant Picture Library Manager, had already once been in a similar dialogue. Ryan Kaldari, an amateur photographer from Nashville, Tennessee, who also volunteers at the Wikimedia Commons, states that he was in correspondence with Bailey in October 2006. In that correspondence, according to Kaldari, he and Bailey failed to conclude any arrangement.

Jay Walsh, the Head of Communications for the Wikimedia Foundation, which hosts the Commons, called the gallery’s actions “unfortunate” in the Foundation’s statement, issued on Tuesday July 14:

“The mission of the Wikimedia Foundation is to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. To that end, we have very productive working relationships with a number of galleries, archives, museums and libraries around the world, who join with us to make their educational materials available to the public.
“The Wikimedia Foundation does not control user behavior, nor have we reviewed every action taken by that user. Nonetheless, it is our general understanding that the user in question has behaved in accordance with our mission, with the general goal of making public domain materials available via our Wikimedia Commons project, and in accordance with applicable law.”

The Foundation added in its statement that as far as it was aware, the NPG had not attempted “constructive dialogue”, and that the volunteer community was presently discussing the matter independently.

In part, the lack of past agreement may have been because of a misunderstanding by the National Portrait Gallery of Commons and Wikipedia’s free content mandate; and of the differences between Wikipedia, the Wikimedia Foundation, the Wikimedia Commons, and the individual volunteer workers who participate on the various projects supported by the Foundation.

Like Coetzee, Ryan Kaldari is a volunteer worker who does not represent Wikipedia or the Wikimedia Commons. (Such representation is impossible. Both Wikipedia and the Commons are endeavours supported by the Wikimedia Foundation, and not organizations in themselves.) Nor, again like Coetzee, does he represent the Wikimedia Foundation.

Kaldari states that he explained the free content mandate to Bailey. Bailey had, according to copies of his messages provided by Kaldari, offered content to Wikipedia (naming as an example the photograph of John Opie‘s 1797 portrait of Mary Wollstonecraft, whose copyright term has since expired) but on condition that it not be free content, but would be subject to restrictions on its distribution that would have made it impossible to use by any of the many organizations that make use of Wikipedia articles and the Commons repository, in the way that their site-wide “usable by anyone” licences ensures.

The proposed restrictions would have also made it impossible to host the images on Wikimedia Commons. The image of the National Portrait Gallery in this article, above, is one such free content image; it was provided and uploaded to the Wikimedia Commons under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation Licence, and is thus able to be used and republished not only on Wikipedia but also on Wikinews, on other Wikimedia Foundation projects, as well as by anyone in the world, subject to the terms of the GFDL, a license that guarantees attribution is provided to the creators of the image.

As Commons has grown, many other organizations have come to different arrangements with volunteers who work at the Wikimedia Commons and at Wikipedia. For example, in February 2009, fifteen international museums including the Brooklyn Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum established a month-long competition where users were invited to visit in small teams and take high quality photographs of their non-copyright paintings and other exhibits, for upload to Wikimedia Commons and similar websites (with restrictions as to equipment, required in order to conserve the exhibits), as part of the “Wikipedia Loves Art” contest.

Approached for comment by Wikinews, Jim Killock, the executive director of the Open Rights Group, said “It’s pretty clear that these images themselves should be in the public domain. There is a clear public interest in making sure paintings and other works are usable by anyone once their term of copyright expires. This is what US courts have recognised, whatever the situation in UK law.”

The Digital Britain report, issued by the U.K.’s Department for Culture, Media, and Sport in June 2009, stated that “Public cultural institutions like Tate, the Royal Opera House, the RSC, the Film Council and many other museums, libraries, archives and galleries around the country now reach a wider public online.” Culture minster Ben Bradshaw was also approached by Wikinews for comment on the public policy issues surrounding the on-line availability of works in the public domain held in galleries, re-raised by the NPG’s threat of legal action, but had not responded by publication time.

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Step By Step Guide To Car Resprays Respraying Paint And Paint Repair

November 21st, 2021 | Workshop And Engineering Equipment |

By Mario Goldstein

Respraying your car means you are prepared to devote some time and money to complete this project. There is no reason why you can’t do this yourself, but you are going to need some guidelines. Unless of course you are already a professional car painter.

First of all make up your mind to accept that you are not going to get the same professional looking job by using spray paints from a can. That’s not to say you can’t use them and get decent results. Just don’t raise your expectations to high. Respraying your car will take some getting used to.

First Step:

Do all of your sanding of the rough spots, and filling of the holes. There is no point in doing this after you have cleaned the car you will just be defeating the purpose of washing the car in the first place.

Second step:

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You must start with a clean car. If you don’t then your final paint finish will be a mess. Every bit of debris that you left on the car will be evident after the respraying.

Hint: If your car is wet and you shine a light on it you will clearly see any imperfections that you didn’t catch in the first or second step

Third Step

Now you have to mask off all of the areas where you do not want paint. If you aren’t really diligent in this step you could end up being really sorry that you didn’t. It would be a shame to have a beautiful paint finish, but half the paint is on the windows or chrome.

Fourth Step

Practice a little bit with your spray. There is a bit of a technique to it. Remember we said that respraying your car does take some time. Practice on a piece of cardboard. That way you are not as likely to get squirts or blobs of paint. Keep the spray moving continuously, and in very light coats. Several light coats of paint are far superior to two thick ones, that will look really uneven.

Fifth Step

Allow the coats of paint to dry at least one hour in between. Then apply the finishing coat. Again this should be applied just like the paint. A flowing motion with just a very light coating.

By taking your time to do the job right and following these respraying instructions you should end up with a very acceptable completed project. If you try and take short cuts then this is where your problems will start.

Make sure you use good quality equipment and products. Take your time, because when you start to rush a stage then that’s where mistakes take place. Remember to use the proper safety measures such as the right protective gear.

Ideally it helps to be able to respray your car on a warm sunny day, as it helps to set or bake the paint on, giving it a nicer finish.

So remember before you start, do your research on the how to’s and have all your equipment and supplies at hand, and you are ready to go for it.

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Concerns raised over UK hospital disinfection practices">
Concerns raised over UK hospital disinfection practices

November 20th, 2021 | Uncategorized |

Wednesday, November 8, 2006

A survey, conducted by the Patients’ Association, an independent charity devoted to defending the interests of patients, has revealed “unease and concern among health professionals” that infection control practices in the United Kingdom’s National Health Service are “endangering patients’ lives”. The survey published today, revealed that NHS infection control staff felt that infection control was inadequately financed, that training was inadequate and that much time has to be spent reassuring patients.

The Association is concerned that the financial deficits of many NHS trusts may prejudice good infection control practice because the resources allocated for this are not effectively ring-fenced. There was evidence of inadequate training and execution of good practice. The report also listed shortcomings in way supplies were acquired and delays in getting supplies of the preferred disinfectant: 2% Chlorhexidine-based solution.

BBC reported that a recent paper to a Society for General Microbiology conference by a University of Leeds team has shown that two chemical cleaners commonly used in hospitals, far from reducing the prevalence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) bacterium, actually increased its ability to survive. Only cleaners containing bleach had been proved effective in disposing of this bacterium. Authors of the paper refused to disclose what those two cleaners were.

There is particular concern in the Patients’ Association about the absence of adequate data on the spread of C. difficile. The Telegraph quotes Katharine Murphy, of the Patients’ Association, as saying: “Collection of data about this very dangerous infection is haphazard to say the least, and we are not getting the true picture. How can patients have confidence in their hospitals if the real threat posed by C. difficile is being played down?”

The Report found that only a fifth of respondents confirmed the collection of surgical-site infection data and that only 27% reported infection data about C. difficile; despite the requirement that Trusts collect and report these data.

Trusts are also required to report the incidence of surgical-site infection, but the Patients’ Association survey found that only a fifth of respondents confirmed the collection of these data.

The Patients Association called this a “worrying and haphazard situation”.

The Telegraph reports that experts consider that C. difficile is an even greater threat to patient’s health than MRSA.

Leicester NHS Trust has reported 49 deaths associated with C. difficile. in three of its hospitals. Six deaths have been reported at Maidstone Hospital and the Healthcare Commission has been asked to investigate. C. difficile was associated with the deaths of nearly 1000 patient in 2003.

A new Code of Practice “for the prevention and control of healthcare associated infections” was issued by the Department of Health in October 2006 under the Health Act 2006. This refers to the NHS in England and Wales only.

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